Bridgeport: Connecticut Post, Bridgeport
Bristol: The Bristol Press
Danbury: The News-Times, Danbury
Hartford: Hartford Courant
Manchester: Journal Inquirer, Manchester
Meriden: Record-Journal, Meriden
Middletown: The Middletown Press
New Britain: The Herald, New Britain
New Haven: New Haven Register
New London: The Day, New London
Norwalk: The Hour, Norwalk
Norwich: Norwich Bulletin
Stamford: The Stamford Advocate and Greenwich Time
Torrington: The Register Citizen, Torrington
Waterbury: Waterbury Republican-American
Willimantic: The Chronicle, Willimantic
District of Columbia
Or select a
Newsroom diversity has passed its peak
|1||Gannett Co. (Va.)||89|
|2||Knight Ridder (Calif.)||76|
|3||McClatchy Co. (Calif.)||71|
|4||New York Times Co.||69|
|5||Cox Enterprises (Ga.)||66|
|6||Advance (Newhouse) (N.Y.)||63|
|7||Freedom Communications (Ca.)||59|
|10||Tribune Co. (Ill.)||55|
|11||Dow Jones (N.Y.)||52|
|13||Lee Enterprises (Iowa)||47|
|13||MediaNews Group (Colo.)||47|
|15||Hearst Newspapers (N.Y.)||45|
|16||Copley Press (Calif.)||43|
|17||Community Newspaper Holdings (Ala.)||41|
|19||Media General (Va.)||39|
|20||Liberty Group Publishing (Ill.)||32|
|21||Journal Register (N.J.)||24|
|22||Hollinger International (Ill.)||22|
|23||Morris Communications (Ga.)||21|
|24||Horizon Publications (Ill.)||19|
|25||Paxton Media Group (Ky.)||18|
|26||Ogden Newspapers (W.V.)||12|
The list is led by companies with well-known programs of rewarding managers -- with bonuses -- for recruitment of journalists of color.
Some of the larger chains appear to have a farm team of journalists at the smaller newspapers, ready to move up to the larger newspapers. Leave out USA Today, and Gannett's other newspapers have a combined score of 103, or greater non-white employment than the non-white share of their circulation areas.
Detailed rankings of larger newspaper groups are in Table 7: Large newspaper companies, ranked by Newsroom Diversity Index (PDF format), or see the table in Excel format.
And groups with fewer newspapers, or lower total circulation, are in Table 8: Small newspaper companies, ranked by Newsroom Diversity Index (PDF format), or see the table in Excel format.
How does the industry generally show improvement in the ASNE surveys, if many papers are falling behind?
It's clear that the increase in non-white employment at some newspapers is masking a decline at others.
And some papers that are below their historic peak have made small gains in recent years. In the past year, 57 percent of the largest 200 papers increased their non-white staffing percentage, while 32 percent of the broader list of all newspapers increased. (These figures reflect only those responding to the surveys.)
Another factor is that ASNE does not divulge for individual newspapers the raw number of non-white journalists. It reports only the percentage of the staff that is non-white. So it's difficult to know whether a paper truly increased its number of journalists of color, or whether just the percentage increased as white journalists left.
Many newsrooms have contracted in recent years, by involuntary layoffs, voluntary buyouts or attrition. Those cuts would tend to affect an older, and therefore more white group of journalists. If the newsroom shrinks, and whites leave, the non-white percentage can increase without a single additional non-white journalist being hired. This year ASNE reported that newsrooms have lost more than 2,200 journalists since 2001, a 4 percent decline, while the number of journalists of color has increased by 700, or nearly 11 percent.
Without the industry contraction, presumably the records on non-white hiring would look worse at many newspapers. Even with the contraction, most newspapers are below their peak non-white employment, as a share of the staff.
The number of newspapers reporting an all-white newsroom declined a bit. There were 346 newspapers this year, 374 last year. Their editors reported no non-white journalists. As a share of all newspapers responding to ASNE's survey, the all-white papers were 37 percent this year, down from 40 percent last year.
Although many of these all-white newspapers are small, they have a combined weekday circulation of 3,337,478 -– about the total of USA Today and The New York Times combined.
That all-white list doesn't include the 486 daily newspapers that ignored the annual ASNE survey. Of those, 275 papers reported an all-white newsroom on their latest report in a previous year. So the latest evidence from 44 percent of all newspapers (621 out of 1,410) showed an entirely white newsroom.
Many of these all-white papers are in relatively white communities, but not all: What do Greenwood, Miss., and Rocky Ford, Colo. have in common with Plainview, Texas, Sumter, S.C., and Liberal, Kan.? These five communities have a majority of non-whites in the newspaper's circulation area, and all their editors reported having an entirely white newsroom. Another 40 all-white newsrooms serve communities where at least a quarter of the population are non-whites.
More information on the all-white newsrooms is below, in Discussion question No. 2, How many communities are still getting their news from all-white newsrooms?
The all-white newspapers are listed in
or see the table in Excel format.
This report gives more detail on the following questions:
Since 1978, the American Society of Newspaper Editors has urged editors to improve news coverage by employing at least enough journalists of color to reflect their diverse communities. ASNE asks papers to report the percentage of editors, reporters, copy/layout editors and photographers who are black, Hispanic, Asian or Native American. This year again ASNE reported slow progress in total non-white employment, as a result falling further behind the growing non-white population of the nation.
Although ASNE's report shows each newspaper's non-white employment, it does not disclose how close that paper is to ASNE's goal, nor which papers are moving closer to the goal.
The Knight Foundation report builds on the ASNE survey by showing which newspapers, and newspaper chains, are closer to the ASNE goal than others. It compares the newsroom staffing, as reported to ASNE, with the circulation area population, using figures from the Audit Bureau of Circulations and the US Census.
The report -- on the Web at www.powerreporting.com/knight -- includes a separate Web page for each of 1,410 daily newspapers, showing its history of non-white employment from 1990-2005; a Diversity Index comparing the newsroom non-white employment with its circulation area's population; a companywide Diversity Index; a role model, another newspaper of similar size and circumstance with a higher Diversity Index; and details on the race and ethnicity of the circulation area and the home county. In addition, for the 866 papers that file audited sales reports by ZIP Code, the report shows the racial and ethnic breakdown in each ZIP Code, the household income, and sales per household.
The Knight Foundation report is intended to help journalists, newspaper readers and community leaders discuss such questions as:
In which communities and neighborhoods does our newspaper sell well? or poorly?
Are the low-sales neighborhoods explained by household incomes? by competition from other papers? Do race, ethnicity and language play a role?
Does our newspaper have more readers in non-white areas than we had thought? Or fewer?
Is our newspaper missing a business opportunity? Would having more reporters and editors of color help the paper get more news of interest to readers of color? Even with the current staff, what steps can the newspaper take to raise its awareness of news of interest to all readers?
When did our newspaper's non-white staffing reach its peak? What has happened since? What are the barriers to hiring and retaining journalists of color?
The rarities are still the dailies who have reached ASNE's goal. Only 13 percent of newspapers responding to the survey have reached parity between the newsroom and community, unchanged since last year’s report and up slightly from the 11 percent in 2003.
Only 36 percent of newspapers are even halfway to the goal, up from 34 percent last year.
Here's how newspapers were dispersed by Newsroom Diversity Index, which compares the newsroom non-white percentage with the community non-white percentage. (100 = parity.)
|% of Newspapers Reporting||No. of Newspapers Reporting|
|100 percent parity or better||11%||13%||13%||101||123||120|
|75 to 99 percent||7%||7%||8%||61||61||74|
|50 to 74 percent||14%||14%||15%||129||132||136|
|25 to 49 percent||21%||18%||21%||195||169||191|
|1 to 24 percent||8%||8%||6%||75||73||57|
The Newsroom Diversity Index for larger newspapers is detailed in Table 1: Ranking by 2004 Newsroom Diversity Index: Top 200 newspapers by circulation (PDF format), or see the table in Excel format.
The Newsroom Diversity Index for all newspapers is in Table 2: Ranking by 2004 Newsroom Diversity Index: All daily newspapers, listed by state and city (PDF format), or see the table in Excel format.
No people of color work in 346 US newspapers, about one in four newsrooms.
In reality, the number of all-white newsrooms almost certainly is substantially higher, because 486 newspapers did not respond to the ASNE survey.
For a hint at the real number of all-white newsrooms, one can look at how the 486 non-responders did respond to previous ASNE surveys. Of those 486 newspapers, 275 papers reported an all-white newsroom on their latest report in a previous year. So the latest evidence from 44 percent of all newspapers (621 out of 1,410) showed no journalists of color.
Or one can look at use the responding papers of a certain size as a proxy to indicate the employment at the non-responding papers. This analysis suggests the likelihood that there are at least 182 more newspapers with all-white newsrooms, for a total of 528 out of 1,410 newspapers, or 37 percent. Together, those newspapers serve more than 5.3 million readers a day.
Some of these all-white newspapers are in communities that are themselves nearly all white. Even in those communities, ASNE's goal calls for employment of at least one journalist of color. If each of those 528 all-white newsrooms hired just one journalist of color, it would increase the total number of such journalists by more than 7%.
But many of the all-white newsrooms are in communities with substantial non-white populations. And more than a third of the all-white newsrooms serve communities that are at least 10 percent non-white.
The all-white newsrooms serving the most heavily non-white communities are:
|Newspaper, State||Ownership||Weekday circulation|
|1||66.2||The Greenwood Commonwealth, Miss.||Emmerich Newspapers (Miss.)||7,607|
|2||59.7||Rocky Ford Daily Gazette, Colo.||3,013|
|3||54.9||Plainview Daily Herald, Texas||Hearst Newspapers (N.Y.)||6,481|
|4||54.3||The Item, Sumter, S.C.||21,389|
|5||50.6||Southwest Daily Times, Liberal, Kan.||4,250|
|6||48.9||The Ennis Daily News, Texas||Fackelman Newspapers (Fla.)||3,214|
|7||48.3||Artesia Daily Press, N.M.||3,550|
|8||46.5||The Union-Recorder, Milledgeville, Ga.||Community Newspaper Holdings (Ala.)||7,416|
|9||44.5||Bastrop Daily Enterprise, La.||Liberty Group Publishing (Ill.)||5,815|
|10||43.1||Ruston Daily Leader, La.||Fackelman Newspapers (Fla.)||5,592|
|11||42.8||Natchitoches Times, La.||4,805|
|12||42.5||The Kodiak Daily Mirror, Alaska||MediaNews Group (Colo.)||2,735|
|13||42.1||Clovis News Journal, N.M.||Freedom Communications (Ca.)||7,576|
|14||40.2||Hope Star, Ark.||HarborPoint Media (Fla.)||3,031|
|15||37.3||The Tifton Gazette, Ga.||Community Newspaper Holdings (Ala.)||9,046|
|16||36.9||The Garden City Telegram, Kan.||Harris Enterprises (Kan.)||8,912|
|17||36.4||Blytheville Courier News, Ark.||Rust Communications (Mo.)||4,074|
|18||35.6||Washington Daily News, N.C.||8,938|
|19||33.5||The Daily Home, Talladega, Ala.||Consolidated Publishing (Ala.)||9,872|
|20||33.3||Guymon Daily Herald, Okla.||Horizon Publications (Ill.)||2,568|
|21||32.9||The Daily Sitka Sentinel, Alaska||2,821|
|21||32.9||The Fort Morgan Times, Colo.||MediaNews Group (Colo.)||4,390|
|23||32.6||The Union Daily Times, S.C.||6,355|
A full list of the all-white newsrooms is in Table 9: All-white newsrooms: Newspapers employing no journalists of color, ranked by non-white population in circulation area (PDF format), or see the table in Excel format.
Nor are all the all-white newsrooms in tiny communities. The all-white newsrooms with the largest daily circulation are:
|1||47,105||10.8||Billings Gazette, Montana||Lee Enterprises (Iowa)|
|2||47,083||9.5||The Pantagraph, Bloomington, Illinois||Pulitzer (Mo.)|
|3||42,463||8.2||The Macomb Daily, Mount Clemens, Michigan||Journal Register (N.J.)|
|4||33,714||5.1||Observer-Reporter, Washington, Pennsylvania|
|5||32,745||4.0||The Scranton Times and The Tribune, Pennsylvania||Times-Shamrock (Pa.)|
|6||31,805||4.1||Altoona Mirror, Pennsylvania||Ogden Newspapers (W.V.)|
|7||31,606||4.0||The Citizens' Voice, Wilkes-Barre, Pennsylvania||Times-Shamrock (Pa.)|
|8||30,685||10.7||The Hutchinson News, Kansas||Harris Enterprises (Kan.)|
|9||29,964||21.0||The Daily Progress, Charlottesville, Virginia||Media General (Va.)|
|10||29,513||5.1||Johnson City Press, Tennessee||Sandusky Newspapers (Ohio)|
|11||29,251||4.2||Valley News Dispatch, Tarentum, Pennsylvania||Tribune-Review (Pa.)|
|12||28,621||2.8||Telegraph Herald, Dubuque, Iowa|
|13||28,115||2.4||Butler Eagle, Pennsylvania|
|14||27,998||6.5||The Salina Journal, Kansas||Harris Enterprises (Kan.)|
|15||27,960||5.6||Messenger-Inquirer, Owensboro, Kentucky||Paxton Media Group (Ky.)|
|16||27,186||17.4||The Daily Commercial, Leesburg, Florida||HarborPoint Media (Fla.)|
|17||26,901||4.0||Leader-Telegram, Eau Claire, Wisconsin|
|18||26,747||4.1||Pottsville Republican & Evening Herald, Pennsylvania||Times-Shamrock (Pa.)|
For a historical perspective, the study looked at ASNE surveys from 1990 through 2005.
Among the 200 largest papers, 176 reported their employment figures for the latest year. Each of these reported at least one non-white employee. Of those 176 papers:
Among all 1,410 papers, 924 reported their employment for the latest year. The picture for those papers is more complicated because so many have all-white newsrooms, and many of those have never reported a non-white employee.
Of those 924 papers:
Here are the peak years of non-white employment for the 200 largest newspapers, along with their peak non-white staff percentage and their latest percentage. An asterisk indicates that the newspaper did not report employment for the latest year. The 2005 ASNE report, issued in April 2005, reflects employment at the end of the previous year.
(% of staff)
(% of staff)
|1||1994||USA Today, Va.||30.9||21.4||17.2||2005|
|2||2000||The Wall Street Journal, N.Y.||30.9||18.2||16.7||2005|
|3||2003||The New York Times, N.Y.||30.9||17.1||16.7||2005|
|4||2000||Los Angeles Times, Calif.||58.2||20.6||19.0||2005|
|5||1995||Daily News, N.Y., N.Y.||65.0||20.9||17.2||2005|
|6||2004||The Washington Post, D.C.||43.2||22.6||21.4||2005|
|7||1994*||New York Post, N.Y.||40.3||17.3||13.9||2001|
|8||2005||Chicago Tribune, Ill.||28.5||17.7||17.7||2005|
|9||2005||Houston Chronicle, Texas||51.2||21.3||21.3||2005|
|10||2004||The Dallas Morning News, Texas||40.9||20.2||14.8||2005|
|11||1998||San Francisco Chronicle, Calif.||46.8||20.7||16.8||2005|
|12||2002||Newsday, Long Island, N.Y.||33.9||26.1||25.7||2005|
|13||2005||The Boston Globe, Mass.||16.9||20.0||20.0||2005|
|14||2005||The Arizona Republic, Phoenix, Ariz.||32.8||24.2||24.2||2005|
|15||1996*||Chicago Sun-Times, Ill.||50.3||23.0||23.0||1996|
|16||1998||The Star-Ledger, Newark, N.J.||36.8||23.4||19.8||2005|
|17||2005||The Atlanta Journal-Constitution, Ga.||38.1||23.0||23.0||2005|
|18||2001||Star Tribune, Minneapolis, Minn.||14.6||14.6||14.5||2005|
|19||2004||The Philadelphia Inquirer, Pa.||22.3||18.5||17.2||2005|
|20||1995||The Plain Dealer, Cleveland, Ohio||24.5||17.9||14.8||2005|
|21||2005||Detroit Free Press, Mich.||28.1||29.2||29.2||2005|
|22||2005||The Oregonian, Portland, Ore.||18.2||18.8||18.8||2005|
|23||2005||St. Petersburg Times, Fla.||15.8||16.5||16.5||2005|
|24||1999||The Miami Herald, Fla.||70.1||46.8||29.9||2005|
|25||2005||The San Diego Union-Tribune, Calif.||45.5||17.1||17.1||2005|
|26||2005||Orange County Register, Santa Ana, Calif.||48.8||27.4||27.4||2005|
|27||2004||The Sacramento Bee, Calif.||35.0||30.4||29.2||2005|
|28||2005||St. Louis Post-Dispatch, Mo.||21.4||16.4||16.4||2005|
|29||2004||The Kansas City Star, Mo.||20.4||17.9||17.3||2005|
|30||2005||The Denver Post, Colo.||27.5||18.5||18.5||2005|
|31||2005||Rocky Mountain News, Denver, Colo.||25.0||14.1||14.1||2005|
|32||1991||The Sun, Baltimore, Md.||33.9||19.6||15.9||2005|
|33||2003||San Jose Mercury News, Calif.||52.6||33.2||32.1||2005|
|34||1992||Orlando Sentinel, Fla.||32.0||20.5||18.9||2005|
|35||2005||The Times-Picayune, New Orleans, La.||43.6||17.1||17.1||2005|
|36||2005||The Indianapolis Star, Ind.||20.0||14.4||14.4||2005|
|37||1991*||The Columbus Dispatch, Ohio||17.8||5.5||5.5||1991|
|38||1995*||Boston Herald, Mass.||24.1||11.2||5.5||2003|
|39||2005||Milwaukee Journal Sentinel, Wis.||22.5||19.2||19.2||2005|
|40||1993||Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, Pa.||13.2||10.8||9.6||2005|
|41||2005||South Florida Sun-Sentinel, Fort Lauderdale||36.1||28.3||28.3||2005|
|42||1998||The Seattle Times, Wash.||24.7||23.6||20.9||2005|
|43||2005||The Tampa Tribune, Fla.||32.4||9.8||9.8||2005|
|44||2004||San Antonio Express-News, Texas||57.9||31.2||30.6||2005|
|45||2001||The Charlotte Observer, N.C.||27.2||17.1||16.3||2005|
|46||2005||The Detroit News, Mich.||21.6||26.2||26.2||2005|
|47||2004||Fort Worth Star-Telegram, Texas||32.8||22.5||21.0||2005|
|48||2005||The Courier-Journal, Louisville, Ky.||15.7||13.8||13.8||2005|
|49||2000||The Virginian-Pilot, Norfolk, Va.||39.1||14.0||13.7||2005|
|50||2005||The Oklahoman, Okla. City, Okla.||24.4||25.5||25.5||2005|
|51||2003||The Buffalo News, N.Y.||16.5||12.1||10.9||2005|
|52||2003||Omaha World-Herald, Neb.||12.1||6.8||6.5||2005|
|53||1999||Hartford Courant, Conn.||21.1||16.3||11.1||2005|
|54||2002||St. Paul Pioneer Press, Minn.||13.9||18.0||17.9||2005|
|55||2005||Richmond Times-Dispatch, Va.||36.6||12.9||12.9||2005|
|56||1993||The Cincinnati Enquirer, Ohio||15.6||16.2||11.8||2005|
|57||2005||The Press-Enterprise, Riverside, Calif.||49.4||25.0||25.0||2005|
|58||2005||Contra Costa Times, Walnut Creek, Calif.||39.0||19.9||19.9||2005|
|59||1991*||Arkansas Democrat-Gazette, Little Rock||21.7||14.1||8.5||1992|
|60||1999||Los Angeles Daily News||52.3||17.8||16.7||2005|
|61||2005||Austin American-Statesman, Texas||37.9||23.6||23.6||2005|
|62||2003||The Record, Hackensack, N.J.||34.9||16.5||15.5||2005|
|63||1994||The Tennessean, Nashville, Tenn.||19.5||20.9||20.2||2005|
|64||2004||The Palm Beach Post, West Palm Beach, Fla.||30.9||19.0||17.6||2005|
|65||1997*||The Providence Journal, R.I.||17.3||9.4||5.4||2001|
|66||1998||Rochester Democrat and Chronicle, N.Y.||17.9||16.7||15.3||2005|
|67||1997*||The Florida Times-Union, Jacksonville, Fla.||29.6||18.8||10.4||2004|
|68||2005||The News & Observer, Raleigh, N.C.||30.8||21.0||21.0||2005|
|69||2000||The Commercial Appeal, Memphis, Tenn.||48.1||14.8||10.6||2005|
|70||1997||Asbury Park Press, Neptune, N.J.||15.3||13.3||11.2||2005|
|71||2003||The Fresno Bee, Calif.||57.6||30.6||25.0||2005|
|72||1993*||Las Vegas Review-Journal, Nev.||39.3||8.2||8.2||1993|
|73||2004||The Des Moines Register, Iowa||8.3||12.5||12.3||2005|
|74||2005||Daily Herald, Arlington Heights, Ill.||22.6||7.7||7.7||2005|
|75||1995||Seattle Post-Intelligencer, Wash.||27.0||15.3||14.0||2005|
|76||2003||The Birmingham News, Ala.||31.6||19.0||17.6||2005|
|77||1997||The Honolulu Advertiser, Hawaii||79.0||51.7||50.4||2005|
|78||1998||The Journal News, White Plains, N.Y.||32.4||18.3||17.8||2005|
|79||1996||The Blade, Toledo, Ohio||16.9||10.0||6.4||2005|
|80||1996||The Grand Rapids Press, Mich.||15.7||17.6||11.3||2005|
|81||1997||Tulsa World, Okla.||27.5||10.5||9.7||2005|
|82||2005||Philadelphia Daily News, Pa.||53.2||25.0||25.0||2005|
|83||1997||The Akron Beacon Journal, Ohio||11.8||21.6||20.8||2005|
|84||2003||The Salt Lake Tribune, Salt Lake City, Utah||16.0||7.8||4.5||2005|
|85||2000||The News Tribune, Tacoma, Wash.||23.3||16.7||14.7||2005|
|86||1998||Dayton Daily News, Ohio||15.8||16.2||13.7||2005|
|87||2005||The Post-Standard, Syracuse, N.Y.||11.6||14.8||14.8||2005|
|88||1997||The News Journal, Wilmington, Del.||25.7||19.8||16.5||2005|
|89||2005||The State, Columbia, S.C.||41.1||20.0||20.0||2005|
|90||1998||Lexington Herald-Leader, Ky.||10.2||16.1||10.4||2005|
|91||2005||The Knoxville News-Sentinel, Tenn.||8.4||13.5||13.5||2005|
|92||2002||The Morning Call, Allentown, Pa.||12.3||10.7||10.1||2005|
|93||1997||Sarasota Herald-Tribune, Fla.||12.3||11.8||8.5||2005|
|94||2005||Pittsburgh Tribune-Review, Pa.||6.7||6.8||6.8||2005|
|95||2005||Albuquerque Journal, N.M.||53.5||19.2||19.2||2005|
|96||2003||The Daytona Beach News-Journal, Fla.||18.2||8.5||7.2||2005|
|97||2004||Telegram & Gazette, Worcester, Mass.||14.0||4.3||3.3||2005|
|98||N/A||Scripps Treasure Coast, Stuart, Fla.||N/A||N/A||N/A||N/A|
|99||2003||Arizona Daily Star, Tucson, Ariz.||40.5||27.8||23.7||2005|
|100||1993||Times Union, Albany, N.Y.||12.8||10.3||9.4||2005|
|101||1990*||The Washington Times, D.C.||64.3||11.2||9.6||2002|
|102||1997||The Patriot-News, Harrisburg, Pa.||13.2||10.4||8.9||2005|
|103||2003||The Spokesman-Review, Spokane, Wash.||9.3||6.2||6.0||2005|
|104||2003||San Gabriel Valley, West Covina, Calif.||74.3||30.4||29.7||2005|
|105||1995||The Roanoke Times, Va.||11.6||10.7||6.0||2005|
|106||2005||Ventura County Star, Calif.||42.2||21.2||21.2||2005|
|107||1997*||Press-Telegram, Long Beach, Calif.||76.8||29.6||16.4||2004|
|108||1993||Tribune Newspapers, Mesa, Ariz.||23.1||14.3||4.1||2005|
|109||2000*||The Post and Courier, Charleston, S.C.||35.9||12.3||11.8||2001|
|110||2005||The Clarion-Ledger, Jackson, Miss.||48.5||31.1||31.1||2005|
|111||1994*||Mobile Register, Ala.||32.8||13.8||8.6||2003|
|112||2001||North County Times, Escondido, Calif.||37.4||14.4||11.3||2005|
|113||2003*||New Haven Register, Conn.||22.7||15.9||15.9||2003|
|114||2002*||Daily Press, Newport News, Va.||38.5||17.0||13.3||2004|
|115||2000||The Gazette, Colo. Springs, Colo.||23.1||13.3||8.3||2005|
|116||1996||Wisconsin State Journal, Madison, Wis.||9.0||6.3||4.9||2005|
|117||1996||News & Record, Greensboro, N.C.||32.5||13.8||10.0||2005|
|118||2005||The News-Press, Fort Myers, Fla.||19.2||18.9||18.9||2005|
|119||1994*||The Press Democrat, Santa Rosa, Calif.||25.1||17.3||12.5||2004|
|120||2005||The Wichita Eagle, Kan.||18.6||18.4||18.4||2005|
|121||2002||The Advocate, Baton Rouge, La.||37.2||10.0||8.1||2005|
|122||1995||The Times, Munster, Ind.||25.2||16.7||11.0||2005|
|123||1999||The Greenville News, S.C.||22.8||20.4||19.1||2005|
|124||2004||Florida Today, Melbourne, Fla.||16.3||22.6||19.1||2005|
|125||2000||The Republican, Springfield, Mass.||21.7||7.0||6.2||2005|
|126||2005||Winston-Salem Journal, N.C.||21.7||10.6||10.6||2005|
|127||1998||The Flint Journal, Mich.||21.1||13.3||12.3||2005|
|128||1994||The Modesto Bee, Calif.||41.5||25.3||20.5||2005|
|129||2004*||The Times Herald Record, Middletown, N.Y.||21.4||10.8||10.8||2004|
|130||2003||Portland Press Herald/Sunday Telegram, Maine||3.9||6.4||5.9||2005|
|131||1996*||Connecticut Post, Bridgeport, Conn.||28.9||7.1||3.3||2003|
|132||1993||Courier-Post, Cherry Hill, N.J.||23.3||17.9||16.8||2005|
|133||2003||Lincoln Journal Star, Neb.||8.3||12.9||9.9||2005|
|134||2001||The Press of Atlantic City, Pleasantville, N.J.||27.4||14.3||6.6||2005|
|135||2000||The Augusta Chronicle, Ga.||41.8||12.7||9.0||2005|
|136||2005||South Bend Tribune, Ind.||15.5||13.6||13.6||2005|
|137||1997||El Paso Times, Texas||81.4||64.4||60.0||2005|
|138||2005||Deseret Morning News, Salt Lake City, Utah||13.0||8.4||8.4||2005|
|139||1997||The San Bernardino County Sun, Calif.||58.2||33.8||18.8||2005|
|140||2005||Chattanooga Times Free Press, Tenn.||15.8||7.2||7.2||2005|
|141||1994||The Register-Guard, Eugene, Ore.||11.1||5.3||1.5||2005|
|142||2003||The Ledger, Lakeland, Fla.||24.9||16.5||14.1||2005|
|143||2005||Lansing State Journal, Mich.||16.7||16.9||16.9||2005|
|144||2001*||Daily Breeze, Torrance, Calif.||58.5||6.3||6.3||2001|
|145||1999*||The Oakland Tribune, Calif.||68.5||47.8||17.5||2003|
|146||1996||Journal Star, Peoria, Ill.||11.4||10.5||4.8||2005|
|147||2002||The Times, Trenton, N.J.||32.3||11.1||5.7||2005|
|148||1995*||Vindicator, Youngstown, Ohio||15.8||5.3||5.3||1995|
|149||1997||Anchorage Daily News, Alaska||26.8||7.1||3.4||2005|
|150||2005||Reno Gazette-Journal, Nev.||24.7||17.6||17.6||2005|
|151||1993||The Evansville Courier & Press, Ind.||7.0||9.2||4.6||2005|
|152||2003||The Fayetteville Observer, N.C.||48.1||15.9||9.5||2005|
|153||1997||The Oakland Press, Pontiac, Mich.||15.6||18.8||8.1||2005|
|154||1996||Post-Tribune of Northwest Indiana, Merrillville||31.3||25.4||8.5||2005|
|155||1996||The Repository, Canton, Ohio||10.1||11.3||7.9||2005|
|156||1994||The Cincinnati Post, Kentucky Post, Ohio||8.0||8.0||4.1||2005|
|157||1995||Inland Valley Daily Bulletin, Ontario, Calif.||61.4||31.5||30.5||2005|
|158||2000||Rockford Register Star, Ill.||19.7||22.2||19.0||2005|
|159||1993||Honolulu Star-Bulletin, Hawaii||80.0||50.0||46.1||2005|
|160||2001||The Gwinnett Daily Post, Lawrenceville, Ga.||33.0||19.0||8.0||2005|
|161||2000||The Gazette, Cedar Rapids, Iowa||6.2||3.6||1.1||2005|
|162||2002||Bucks County Courier Times, Levittown, Pa.||11.2||20.8||14.5||2005|
|163||1995||The Idaho Statesman, Boise, Idaho||13.1||12.5||8.6||2005|
|164||1997||Pensacola News Journal, Fla.||23.5||31.7||18.2||2005|
|165||2004||The Times, Shreveport, La.||41.3||31.7||31.1||2005|
|166||2004||Bangor Daily News, Maine||3.6||1.5||1.4||2005|
|167||1993||The Bakersfield Californian, Calif.||53.6||25.0||19.7||2005|
|168||1996||The Macon Telegraph, Ga.||41.5||19.4||15.7||2005|
|169||2002||Reading Eagle, Pa.||15.2||13.5||2.1||2005|
|170||1994||Staten Island Advance, N.Y.||28.7||19.7||12.7||2005|
|171||1992||The Journal Gazette, Fort Wayne, Ind.||12.1||13.6||11.1||2005|
|172||2005||Standard-Examiner, Ogden, Utah||14.2||8.6||8.6||2005|
|173||2005||Springfield News-Leader, Mo.||5.9||15.0||15.0||2005|
|174||1992||The Christian Science Monitor, Boston, Mass.||30.9||8.3||5.1||2005|
|175||1992||Erie Times-News, Pa.||9.7||5.6||4.8||2005|
|176||2001*||The Union Leader, Manchester, N.H.||6.2||0.0||0.0||2001|
|177||2005||Asheville Citizen-Times, N.C.||9.9||17.0||17.0||2005|
|178||1993||The Record, Stockton, Calif.||51.6||29.1||18.8||2005|
|179||2004||Home News Tribune, East Brunswick, N.J.||38.7||15.3||12.7||2005|
|180||1995||The Patriot Ledger, Quincy, Mass.||10.0||15.0||3.8||2005|
|181||2005||Green Bay Press-Gazette, Wis.||8.5||13.5||13.5||2005|
|182||2005||Corpus Christi Caller-Times, Texas||62.4||37.7||37.7||2005|
|183||1994||Naples Daily News, Fla.||19.4||23.8||3.3||2005|
|184||1999||Kalamazoo Gazette, Mich.||13.3||16.1||13.2||2005|
|185||1999||The State Journal-Register, Springfield, Ill.||9.8||8.5||7.5||2005|
|186||2004||Press & Sun-Bulletin, Binghamton, N.Y.||7.2||13.5||11.3||2005|
|187||2001||Waterbury Republican-American, Conn.||16.2||5.7||2.8||2005|
|188||1997||Savannah Morning News, Ga.||39.5||13.4||6.5||2005|
|189||2004||Belleville News-Democrat, Ill.||22.3||14.3||12.5||2005|
|190||1994||Star-News, Wilmington, N.C.||24.9||19.1||10.4||2005|
|191||2003||Argus Leader, Sioux Falls, S.D.||6.4||12.5||10.0||2005|
|192||2001||Statesman Journal, Salem, Ore.||21.6||20.0||15.6||2005|
|193||1994||The Huntsville Times, Ala.||23.9||11.5||5.5||2005|
|194||1995||Lubbock Avalanche-Journal, Texas||42.5||17.1||10.0||2005|
|195||2000*||Quad-City Times, Davenport, Iowa||13.1||7.0||1.8||2004|
|196||2004||The Post-Crescent, Appleton, Wis.||5.2||6.8||4.8||2005|
|197||2002||Beaumont Enterprise, Texas||33.5||24.4||24.0||2005|
|198||2004*||The Forum, Fargo, N.D.||6.3||1.7||1.7||2004|
|199||2003||Cape Cod Times, Hyannis, Mass.||6.6||7.2||1.5||2005|
|200||1999||The Ann Arbor News, Mich.||20.3||18.6||6.9||2005|
Each newspaper's employment trend is shown on its own report page (choose from the menu above), and in these tables:
Table 3: Historical trends in newsroom diversity, 1990-2004: Top 200 newspapers by circulation (PDF format), or see the table in Excel format.
Table 4: Historical trends in newsroom diversity, 1990-2004: All daily newspapers, listed by state and city (PDF format), or see the table in Excel format.
More than half of the largest newspapers employed a higher percentage of non-white journalists than a year earlier.
Looking at the raw ASNE figures for the top 200 newspapers, there were 164 reporting employment for the two latest years. Their trend:
Among newspapers of all sizes, gainers and losers were about even. There were 777 newspapers reporting employment for both years. Their trend:
Taking a longer view, newspapers can be compared on their trends over one year, three years, five years, and 10 years:
Largest 200 daily papers:
A steady one-third of the large newspapers are not improving, even over 10 years.
One-year trend (164 papers reporting in both years, 2005 and 2004):
Three-year trend (163 papers reporting in both years, 2005 and 2002):
Five-year trend (165 papers reporting in both years, 2005 and 2000):
Ten-year trend (152 papers reporting in both years, 2005 and 1995):
Improvement has been slower among smaller newspapers, with fewer than half of all the papers showing gains, even over a decade.
One-year trend (777 papers reporting in both years, 2005 and 2004):
Three-year trend (730 papers reporting in both years, 2005 and 2002):
Five-year trend (715 papers reporting in both years, 2005 and 2000):
Ten-year trend (691 papers reporting in both years, 2005 and 1995):
A final way of examining the pattern is a statistical analysis of the data, which does offer evidence that many newspapers are sensitive to building newsrooms that look something like the communities they serve. The analysis shows a moderately strong relationship between the percentage of non-white employees in newspapers' circulation areas and the percentage of non-white journalists. In other words, the greater the community non-white percentage, the more likely a newspaper is to have a larger proportion of non-white journalists.
But the analysis shows that the pattern across the industry does not come near the ASNE ideal of parity. Of the newspapers who reported to ASNE, the analysis shows that every 10 point increase in community non-white percentage is accompanied by only about a 4 point increase in newsroom percentage. But this is an overall view; there is a great deal of variation from newspaper to newspaper. The outliers are the few newspapers that have reached the goal of parity, and the many others still stuck at zero non-white journalists.
The analysis also shows that about 41 percent of the variation in newsroom percentage across newspapers can be predicted by the corresponding community percentage, but that means that other factors figure heavily as well. Ownership clearly is one. But some other factors that can't readily be measured play a role, such as desire to meet the goal, desirability of the community as a place to live, racial change in the community, the reputation of a newspaper, supply of non-white journalists in that area, and extent of the newspaper's recruiting.
There is a wide variation among newspapers of the same circulation. And some smaller newspapers employ a greater share of journalists of color than do many larger newspapers.
Here's how the Newsroom Diversity Index breaks out by size of newspaper:
|a) Over 500,000 circulation||46||62 (Chicago Tribune)||26 (New York Daily News)|
|b) 250,001 to 500,000||67||119 (Boston Globe)||38 (San Diego Union-Tribune)|
|c) 100,001 to 250,000||64||177 (Akron Beacon Journal)||22 (Commercial Appeal, Memphis)|
|d) 50,001 to 100,000||50||254 (Springfield News-Leader, Mo.)||13 (Anchorage Daily News)|
|e) 25,001 to 50,000||45||342 (St. Cloud Times, Minn.)||0 (many newspapers)|
|f) 10,001 to 25,000||32||1,251 (Lancaster Eagle-Gazette, Ohio)||0 (many newspapers)|
|g) 5,001 to 10,000||0||698 (Reporter-Times, Martinsville, Ind.)||0 (many newspapers)|
|h) 5,000 and under||0||791 (Little Falls Evening Times, N.Y.)||0 (many newspapers)|
Size matters, judging from the median index. Among larger newspapers, the typical Newsroom Diversity Index is higher.
But there is a wide variation in index scores within each group. For every large newspaper that has met the goal, several have not. And many small newspapers are above parity, or close to it, while hundreds of others are still at zero.
Among the top 100 newspapers in circulation:
|% of Newspapers Reporting||No. of Newspapers Reporting|
|100 percent parity or better||11%||11%||15%||10||10||14|
|75 to 99 percent||14%||17%||15%||13||15||14|
|50 to 74 percent||40%||40%||42%||36||36||38|
|25 to 49 percent||33%||29%||25%||30||26||23|
|1 to 24 percent||2%||2%||2%||2||2||2|
(This year, 9 newspapers in the top 100 didn't respond to the survey.)
As this chart shows, there was some improvement at the top for the largest 100 newspapers this year, with three more newspapers reaching at least 75% of parity, for a total of 28. But more than one out of every four large newspapers remain below half of parity.
Among the top 100, the Newsroom Diversity Index at these 14 newspapers reached or exceeded parity:
|1||The Akron Beacon Journal||177|
|2||The Knoxville News-Sentinel||160|
|3||The Des Moines Register||148|
|4||St. Paul Pioneer Press||129|
|5||The Post-Standard, Syracuse||127|
|6||The Detroit News||121|
|7||The Boston Globe||119|
|8||The Oklahoman, Oklahoma City||105|
|9||St. Petersburg Times||104|
|10||Detroit Free Press||104|
|11||The Tennessean, Nashville||103|
|12||The Oregonian, Portland||103|
And among the top 100 papers (excluding the 9 who didn’t report to the ASNE census), these 25 newspapers had a Newsroom Diversity Index that was less than half of parity:
|Rank||Name||Newsroom Diversity Index (100=parity)|
|91||The Commercial Appeal, Memphis||22|
|90||Telegram & Gazette, Worcester||24|
|89||Daily News, New York||26|
|88||The Salt Lake Tribune, Salt Lake City||28|
|87||The Tampa Tribune||30|
|86||Los Angeles Daily News, Woodland Hills||32|
|85||Los Angeles Times||33|
|84||Daily Herald, Arlington Heights||34|
|83||The Virginian-Pilot, Norfolk||35|
|80||San Francisco Chronicle||36|
|78||The Dallas Morning News||36|
|77||The San Diego Union-Tribune||38|
|76||The Blade, Toledo||38|
|75||The Times-Picayune, New Orleans||39|
|74||The Daytona Beach News-Journal||40|
|72||The Miami Herald||43|
|71||The Fresno Bee||43|
|70||The Record, Hackensack||44|
|69||The Sun, Baltimore||47|
|68||Philadelphia Daily News||47|
|67||The State, Columbia||49|
The analysis used three types of data: (1) ASNE's survey of newsroom staffing, (2) audited circulation data to determine a circulation area, and (3) the 2000 Census to determine the demographics of that area.
The report includes all information on the communities of 1,410 newspapers surveyed by ASNE. Of those, 924 responded to the ASNE survey, a response rate of 66 percent.
Each newspaper was given a score, or Newsroom Diversity Index, to indicate its relative success in reaching parity with its community. A newspaper scored 100, for example, if its news staff and its community had the same percentage of non-whites.
The newsroom staffing figures came from the annual surveys of the American Society of Newspaper Editors. The 2005 survey reflects employment at the end of the previous year. ASNE counts as minorities Hispanics, African-Americans, Asians and Native Americans. Its survey includes newsroom supervisors, reporters, copy/layout editors, and photographers. ASNE reports only a single "minority" percentage for each newspaper, not the percentages for individual racial or ethnic groups. ASNE provided a list of newspapers surveyed, allowing the researchers to list the newspapers that did not respond.
The most precise available figure to represent the circulation area was used, following these rules:
1. For the four national newspapers without circulation centered in any one community -- USA Today, The Wall Street Journal, The New York Times, and the Christian Science Monitor -- this study used the U.S. non-white population (30.9 percent in Census 2000) as the target. The four national newspapers are marked as "USA" in the reports.
2. If a newspaper filed circulation figures for ZIP Codes with the Audit Bureau of Circulations, those figures were used to draw the circulation area. In all, 866 newspapers filed ZIPs. Most large and medium-sized newspapers are in this category. These newspapers are marked as "ZIPs" in the reports. To be included, a ZIP Code had to have at least 10 percent penetration (daily sales divided by households).
3. If a newspaper filed only county-level circulation reports with ABC, those figures were used. These 9 newspapers are marked with "Counties." Again, a 10 percent threshold of daily penetration was used.
That leaves 530 (mostly smaller) newspapers with no ABC data to describe a circulation area.
4. Most of those newspapers are the only newspaper in their home county, and for those the home county was presumed to be the circulation area. Those 422 newspapers are marked as "Home County."
5. The remainder of those newspapers posed the Palo Alto problem. When a newspaper was not the only one in the county, and was located in a smaller city in the county, it wouldn't be fair to assign the demographics of all of, say, Santa Clara County (56 percent non-white) to the newspaper in Palo Alto (where the city is only 27 percent non-white). So the home city was used to look up the demographics. These 109 newspapers are marked as "Home city."
This method is intended to define the circulation area as carefully as possible with the available information. A newspaper may define its circulation area differently for marketing efforts, or news coverage, or to set advertising rates.
In looking up the demographics of these areas in the 2000 U.S. Census, ASNE's definition of minority was used, which includes everyone except non-Hispanic whites.
To determine the top 200 newspapers by circulation, this report used the weekday average circulation reported in the online version of Editor and Publisher magazine in April 2005. This is also the daily circulation figure listed in all tables.
One change this year: Staff of non-English publications, such as the Miami Herald's El Nuevo Herald, are excluded from the ASNE survey. This had the effect of pushing down the Herald's non-white staffing this year. Other papers may have been similarly affected.
Bill Dedman is a correspondent for The Boston Globe, where he writes investigative articles, helps other reporters and editors, and trains the staff in computer-assisted reporting. In 1989, he received the Pulitzer Prize in investigative reporting for "The Color of Money," a series of articles in The Atlanta Journal-Constitution on racial discrimination by mortgage lenders. His Power Reporting site on the Web is used by many journalists as a starting point for research, and he has led seminars in more than 100 newsrooms. Bill started in journalism at age 16 as a copy boy at The Chattanooga Times, and has reported for The Washington Post and The New York Times. He has taught advanced reporting at Boston University, the University of Maryland and Northwestern University. E-mail him at Bill@PowerReporting.com .
Stephen K. Doig is interim director of the Walter Cronkite School of Journalism and Mass Communication of Arizona State University. He also holds the Knight Chair in Journalism, specializing in computer-assisted reporting. Before joining ASU in 1996, he was research editor of The Miami Herald, where he worked for 19 years. Various computer-assisted projects on which he worked at The Herald have won the Pulitzer Prize for public service, the Investigative Reporters and Editors Award, the Goldsmith Prize for Investigative Reporting, and other awards. He serves as a member of the board of directors of Investigative Reporters and Editors. Steve's research interests include helping journalists use social science methods and census and other demographic information to enhance their understanding of, and reporting about, community issues. E-mail him at Steve.Doig@ASU.edu .
The John S. and James L. Knight Foundation promotes excellence in journalism worldwide and invests in the vitality of 26 U.S. communities.
This report is on the Web at
A PDF version of this report, for easier printing, is in this PDF file. It does not include the tables, which are listed above in their own, separate PDF files.
ASNE's survey report is also on the Web, with information on newsroom diversity, at
Lee Becker at the University of Georgia tracks enrollment in journalism programs. He has addressed what he calls the myth that there are not enough journalism students of color, but he says that they may not generally be as well prepared as white students, in terms of internships and work on student newspapers.